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Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) primary function is packet forwarding using the advantages of fast switching and the scalability of routing extended across the Service Provider network where traditionally WAN connectivity was layer 2 using point-to-point or multipoint connectivity. This connectivity is achieved with the use of MPLS routers assigning labels
First Hop Redundancy Protocol (FHRP) in its basic form provides a mechanism to make available a default gateway address across more than one router and build resilience in the network – the following sections will discuss HSRP, VRRP and GLBP. HSRP HSRP is Cisco proprietary and used to create a
The 802.1S standard defines Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) instances where several VLANs are mapped to a defined instance and the Spanning Tree Algorithm is calculated on the VLAN instance rather than a single VLAN. MST incorporates the IEEE 802.1S Rapid Spanning-tree which speeds up convergence addressing the convergence limitations of
Building resilience in a Layer 2 network will involve more than one switch in a topology with dual uplinks and multiple paths to a destination.  If there are no mechanisms to block Layer 2 loops, then a frame broadcasted by a bridge will be duplicated and sent out to all